Kammerschartenhöhle ph. Pawe³
Exploration of this massif had important influence on the progress in
equipment used, techniques of cave exploration and tactics of exploration.
The history of speleological studies in this area involved elements significant
for the development of both, the Austrian and the Polish caving movements.
This history involved also dramatic elements, and aura of heroism has
repeatedly accompanied the exploration performed here.
The steepness of slopes in the massif hampered exploration of its caves
for many years. Despite the nearness of Salzburg, a strong caving centre
since the beginning of the 20th century, only twenty caves were explored
there until 1960. The breakthrough occurred at the beginning of the 60's
when a group of cavers from Salzburg, led by the now legendary Walter
Klappacher, began to explore the Gruberhorn area.
About 30 caves were discovered during a few years; the biggest was Gruberhornhöle,
6 000 m long and 710 m deep, which at the moment of its discovery was
fourth on the list of the world’s deepest caves.
The first group of Polish cavers came here in 1969, initiating the long,
still continuing, intense co-operation of the Polish groups with the Salzburg
centre. Since 1970 Poles play a major role in the exploration of the eastern
arm of the Göll Massif.
In 1970, an expedition organised by STJ KW in Zakopane, led by Christian
Parma and co-operating with Austrian and German cavers, deepened Gruberhornhöle
to about -856 m. In the years 1973-75 AKSiA Czêstochowa discovered several
caves, with the deepest Moudhöle (-546 m).
Speleoklub Morski Gdynia discovered several a dozen of caves in 1975-
-78, the biggest of which, Jubillaumsschacht (2 378 m long and 1173 m
long) is the first cave deeper than 1000 m discovered by Poles.
In 1995-98 Sekcja Groto³azów Wroc³aw discovered a dozen of caves. The
biggest Orgschacht reached the depth of 614 m.
Our group has conducted systematic exploration since 1990. It is an inter-club
corporation created to conduct the speleological study of the massif.
The group includes representatives of the centres from Katowice, Poznañ,
Wroc³aw, Nowy S±cz, Sosnowiec, Gliwice, Ruda ¦l±ska, Kraków, Warszawa
and Valiewo (Yugoslavia). Exploration is going on and is scheduled for
many years. Our goal is to make a detailed survey of the underground karstic
objects using the existing technical possibilities. The accepted purpose
of the survey is to provide base for the reconstruction of the groundwater
circulation routes. We have hitherto discovered 80 caves of total length
of 28 km. The biggest of them are Kammerschartenhöle1 - 6 778
m long and 813 m deep, Grutredsystem - 652 m long and 821 m deep, Koboldschacht
- 679 m deep, Schartenschacht2 - 545 m deep.
In spite of the enormous work already done, we have hitherto determined
the actual level of erosional base at only four places.
The network of the karst conduits discovered until now allows to formulate
preliminary conclusions on the course of the local relief-forming karstic
phenomena. However, the true value of our studies will depend on the results
of exploration on the northern slopes of the massif, which are starting
now, and whose results we promise to present in the future.
1 - Kammerschartenhöle and Sprechendern Steine caves was connected
during next, summer 2001 expedition. Total depth of new system is -1033
2 - Schartenschacht cave was deepened to -700 during next,
summer 2001 expedition.